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Teleskopas yra prietaisas, naudojamas tolimų objektų stebėjimams, surenkantis elektromagnetinę spinduiuotę. Pirmasis žinomas teleskopas buvo sukurtas Olandijoje 17 amžiaus pradžioje. "Telescopes" can refer to a whole range of instruments operating in most regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Žodį "teleskopas" (iš graikų kalbos tele = 'toli' and skopein = 'stebėti'; teleskopos = 'toli stebintis') 1611 metais sugalvojo graikų matematikas Džiovanis Demisianis, panaudojęs jį pavadinti Galilėjaus prietaisams, pristatytais per suvažiavimą Lincėjaus akademijoje.

IstorijaRedaguoti

Šablonas:Main Pirmieji veikiantys teleskopai (refraktoriai buvo sukurti Olandijoje 1608 metais. Juos sukūrė Hansas Lipershėjus, Zacharijas Jansenas ir Jakobas Metjus]] iš Alkmaro. Idėja, kad vietoje lęšio objektyvas galėtų būti naudojamas veidrodis buvo tyrinėjama netrukus po refraktorių sukūrimo. .[1] [[parabolinis veidrodis|Parabolinio veidrodžio naudojimo privalumai buvo sferinės aberacijos sumažinimas ir chromatinės aberacijos nebuvimas.[2] 1668 metais Izaokas Niutonas sukūrė pirmąjį veidrodinį teleskopą, pavadinta jo vardu: Niutono reflektoriumi

Džonas Donavanas Strongas, jaunas Kalifornijos technologijos instituto fizikas 1932 metais vakuume garindamas aliuminį sukūrė pirmą aliuminiu padengtą veidrodį .

Didžiausias galimas refraktoriaus skersmuo - apie vienas metras. didesnio skersmens lęšiai sulūžtų nuo savo svorio. Veidrodinių teleskopų skersmuo tokio limito neturi, nes veidrodis padedamas teleskopo dugne. šio metu didžiausi veidrodiniai teleskopai yra didesni nei 10 metrų skersmens.
Dvidešimtame amžiuje taip pat buvo sukurti teleskopai, užregistruojantys bangas nuo radijo iki gama spindulių. pirmasis radijo teleskopas buvo sukurtas 1937.

Types of telescopesRedaguoti

Šablonas:Citations missing The name "telescope" covers a wide range of instruments and is difficult to define. They all have the attribute of collecting electromagnetic radiation so it can be studied or analyzed in some manner. The most common type is the optical telescope; other types also exist and are listed below.

Optical telescopesRedaguoti

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Šablonas:Main An optical telescope gathers and focuses light mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum (although some work in the infrared and ultraviolet). Optical telescopes increase the apparent angular size of distant objects as well as their apparent brightness. In order for the image to be observed, photographed, studied, and sent to a computer, telescopes work by employing one or more curved optical elements—usually made from glasslenses, or mirrors to gather light and other electromagnetic radiation to bring that light or radiation to a focal point. Optical telescopes are used for astronomy and in many non-astronomical instruments, including: theodolites (including transits), spotting scopes, monoculars, binoculars, camera lenses, and spyglasses. There are three main types:

Other optical telescopes:

Radio telescopesRedaguoti

Šablonas:Main

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Radio telescopes are directional radio antennas that often have a parabolic shape. The dishes are sometimes constructed of a conductive wire mesh whose openings are smaller than the wavelength being observed. Multi-element Radio telescopes are constructed from pairs or larger groups of these dishes to synthesize large 'virtual' apertures that are similar in size to the separation between the telescopes; this process is known as aperture synthesis. As of 2005, the current record array size is many times the width of the Earth—utilizing space-based Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) telescopes such as the Japanese HALCA (Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy) VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Program) satellite. Aperture synthesis is now also being applied to optical telescopes using optical interferometers (arrays of optical telescopes) and aperture masking interferometry at single reflecting telescopes. Radio telescopes are also used to collect microwave radiation, which is used to collect radiation when any visible light is obstructed or faint, such as from quasars. Some radio telescopes are used by programs such as SETI and the Arecibo Observatory to search for exterrestrial life. One particularly exciting example is the Wow! signal, recorded in 1977.

High energy particle telescopesRedaguoti

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High-energy astronomy requires specialized telescopes to make observations since most of these particles go through most metals and glasses.

X-ray telescopes use Wolter telescopes composed of ring-shaped 'glancing' mirrors made of heavy metals that are able to reflect the rays just a few degrees. The mirrors are usually a section of a rotated parabola and a hyperbola, or ellipse. In 1952, Hans Wolter outlined 3 ways a telescope could be built using only this kind of mirror.[3][4]

Gamma-ray telescopes refrain from focusing completely and use coded aperture masks: the patterns of the shadow the mask creates can be reconstructed to form an image.

X-ray and Gamma-ray telescopes are usually on Earth-orbiting satellites or high-flying balloons since the Earth's atmosphere is opaque to this part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

In other types of high energy particle telescopes there is no image-forming optical system. Cosmic-ray telescopes usually consist of an array of different detector types spread out over a large area. A Neutrino telescope consists of a large mass of water or ice, surrounded by an array of sensitive light detectors known as photomultiplier tubes.

Other types of telescopesRedaguoti

Teleskopų sąrašaiRedaguoti

taip pat žiūrėkiteRedaguoti

[[Image:Newtonian Telescopes.JPG|thumb|right|200px| Niutono montuotė teleskopai Perkinso observatorijoje, Delaware, Ohajo valstijoje

NotesRedaguoti

ŠaltiniaiRedaguoti

[1]

Taip pat skaitykiteRedaguoti

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