Astronomy - Black Holes
What exactly IS a black hole? A black hole is an extremely powerful force in space that destroy it all, even light, though unaware to us most; they are also the key to formation.
How Black Holes form.
Our sun is the size of 1 million Earths, though, it is miniature compared to most stars, even the Milky Way is small compared to most galaxies, the Milky Way is a grain of sand compared to some even. To understand how a black hole is formed we need to know the life cycle of a star. A star is formed when a large amount of gas, mostly hydrogen, starts to collapse in on itself because of its gravitational attraction. As it is collapsing the gas atoms start to collide with each other more and more frequently and at greater and greater speeds, which causes the gas to heat up. After a while the gas will be so hot that the hydrogen atoms collide they will no longer bounce off each other, but will combine with one another and make helium. The heat released from this reaction is what makes the star shine. The additional heat from this will also increase the pressure of the gas until the gravitational attraction is balanced out with the pressure and it stops collapsing- we have a star! The star will remain stable like this until it burns up its fuel (hydrogen fusion). Once the star runs out of fuel it will start to cool down and contract.
Our sun is small so it dies as a Red Giant, when it grows nonstop and that may end Earth [Estimated Time : 4 billion years until our sun is to become a Red Giant.] Lets take our sun, and multiply it's size, by ten. The death of it forms a Super-Nova, a humongous explosion when the sun dies. Now let's shrink it back to it's normal size. Now, let's multiply it again, this time, by one hundred, and assume the star is above the Chandrasekhar limit, <1.5x the suns mass. When it dies, it forms a Hyper-Nova, a colossal explosion when enormous stars die. Why do Hyper-Novas form such a huge explosion? Well here's an important part. Black Holes are formed in the center. It sucks up the energy slowly, over millions, perhaps billions, possibly even trillions of years, eventually, the tiny baby black hole will technecally "cough" and then it will cause the explosion, and so the black hole is shown. The gravitational field of the star changes the paths of light rays in space-time. The light cones are bent slightly inward near the surface of the star. As the star contracts, the gravitational field at the surface gets stronger and the light gets bent inward more and more. This makes it more difficult to escape and the star appears dimmer and redder to an observer. Eventually the star will have shrunk to a certain radius and the gravitational force at the surface of the star will be so strong and will bend the light cones inward so much that light can no longer escape. We now have a black hole! The outer most layer of the black hole is called the event horizon which coincides with the paths of light rays that just fail to escape from the black hole. Some black holes may suck in more of them, this forms a Supermassive-Black-Hole.
Supermassive Black Holes
A theory told by highly smart scientists from Discovery's "How the Universe Works" is that when the universe was young, it was filled with black holes, which eventually mixed into supermassive black holes and eventually may get insanely strong forces to grab stars. A black hole is rather miniature and is made inside a star, but not supermassives. Supermassive Black Holes are the absolute only force in the universe that can grab a star, and whip is around, if a star entered OUR solar system, Supermassive or Not, it would be the end. Our sun will be sucked in, slowly though. Earth, well that is near the worst, our crust will be crumbled like bread crust, the mantle will attack us, the magnetic field we have from the iron core, that is going to loose it's power, but the worst part it... it will take the gravity we have; and crush it!
Quasars; The strongest light of the space time continuation.
What is the strongest light? A sun? A giant lightbulb? No... a quasar [Quay-zahr] a black hole absorbs so many planets and so much light, when the world was young, it is said that the Milky Way once was a quasar. Scientific evidence shows that a supermassive black hole lies in the center of the Milky Way, and possibly all galaxies. Once, while our galaxy was young, we were a quasar. The black hole would not stop digesting power, so it shot the immense beam of light. Quasars include stardust, and much more, supermassive black holes are likely to have bits of stars inside the quasar.
Photographs and computerated images, and images formed by NASA technology of Black Holes
Quasars shoot out of the center of the black holes.
Black holes under surmassive size will slowly devour a star. Suns are doomed by being whipped around when supermassives are around.
Black holes may seem to disort the look of outer space depending on the black hole, though this I believe is not a photograph.
This is the computerated image of seemingly planets orbiting a star...but this was taken from the center of the Milky Way, and truely; it is truely Stars orbiting a Supermassive black hole! The only thing that can flop around a whole star is a supermassive black hole.
DO NOT BE ALARMED OR SCARED BY THE FACT OUR GALAXY HAS A SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE CENTER CHARTS HAVE SHOWN WE ARE FAR FROM IT!
Scientists who made this information possible :
Prof. Michio Kaku, Theoretical Physicist
Prof. Lawrence Krauss, Theoretical Physicist
And a large group of others.