Astronomy
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An older version of PS notes

I. Science Tools

A. Define
  1. Physics-
  2. Chemistry-
  3. Physical Science-
  4. Equilibrium-
  5. Ownership-
B. Scientific Methods – The Lies. The TRUTH!!!
  1. Problem, usually stated as a question
  2. Research
  3. Hypothesis-
  4. Experiment
  5. Theory-
- - - - - - - - - - -
Scientific Law-
C. Experimental Design
Constant-
Variable- . . . when designing an experiment, limit the number of variables as much as possible.
Independent variable- the variable that you control; use it to affect something else in the experiment that will help you find an answer; you decide when it changes and how; always put on the horizontal axis when graphing (x)
Dependent variable- a variable that is affected when you change the independent variable; depends on the independent variable; vertical axis when graphing (y)
Control Group-
Placebo-
Double-blind study-
Bias-
D. Units- a noun that follows a number to explain a measurement (Learn "The Chart"!!!!!)
a few examples...
meter --> distance
m^2 -->Area
Liter = dm^3 -->Volume
gram = mass of 1mL of water
second --> time
Define: Length, Area, Volume, mass
Compare/contrast mass and volume
List comparing English and SI units...
E. Affixes
(see "The Chart")
F. Measuring
1. Issues to consider before you start measuring
Concept:
Units:
Scale... ... ...
Largest amount that can be measured:
Increment:
Precision:
2. Issues you MAY need to consider while measuring
Parallax
Meniscus
“Burning an inch”
Estimating
3. Recording a measurement
a. Measure and record the "at least"
b. Estimate 1 more digit
c. Record correct units
G. Conversions
1. Converting from one system to another
2. Metric conversions
G-
 :
 :
M-
 :
 :
k-
h-
dk-
(base unit)
d-
c-
m-
 :
 :
micro-
 :
 :


H. Graphing
  1. Label each axis with a concept and units. Time (the Independent Variable) is usually on the horizontal axis.
  2. Write a title above that is descriptive, yet NOT redundant.
  3. Pick scales that will allow you to use as much of the graph paper as possible.
  4. After plotting points, connect them smoothly, freehand (if told to).
  5. ... slope ...


II. Nuclear Reactions

A. Vocabulary


B. Types of Nuclear Radiation given off during Radioactive Nuclear Decay
Alpha particles-
Beta particles-
Gamma rays-
Neutrons
Nuclear decay generally involves some combination of those types of radiation. If an alpha particle is given off, the atom transmutes into a new element with an atomic number two (2) less than it's original number. If a beta particle is given off, it will have a new atomic number that is one (1) higher.
Have you ever seen an atom?
We CAN see electrons, now.
C. Radioactive Dating and Half-life
See the Graph we made in class. It can be used to predict how old a thing is based on how much C-14 is left in the sample. Every 6000 years (5730 actually), half of what was left will decay. If a thing is older than about 50000 years old, Uranium (or some other radioactive isotope) must be looked at instead.


D. Nuclear Reactions
1. Nuclear Fission-
Like when the Principal puts more teachers on duty, technicians at Nuclear Power Plants add more control rods to the reaction chamber to slow down the chain reaction, or remove them to allow the reaction to increase. Critical mass must be maintained.
A secret from everyone but the film industry
River Bend Power Plant


2. Nuclear Fusion-
Most Fusion reactions give off more energy than was put into them. Therefore, once the reaction begins, there's almost no way to control it. This is true if we use any fuel below (with a lower atomic number than) Iron. If we try to fuse Iron (or anything larger) with other atoms, there is some energy released, but not as much as was required to create the reaction in the first place. Fusion of Iron and heavier elements can only happen in special places and at special times...
Fusion Reactor


3. Nuclear Reactions in Medicine
Not only are tracers (ex. Thallium, Barium, and Iodine) important in diagnosing things like cancer and heart problems, but Radiation can be used to treat cancer (ex. Radium and Cesium).  Although commonly used to treat skin cancer directly, it can be used in the form of a small pill implanted next to an inoperable tumor, to try to kill it or at least shrink it.


III. Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table

A. Terms
Atomic Number-
Mass Number-
Isotope-
Atomic Mass-
Ion-
Charge -
Valence Electron-
Mole?

...

Scale of the univers... FLASH version ...or... Rich HTML version


B. Even smaller than atoms - Quarks (types and what they make) can be described in several ways ... charge, spin, mass (compared to a Proton)
  1. Up . . . . . . . . Ch: +2/3 . . . m: 1/3u
  2. Down . . . . . . Ch: -1/3 . . . m: 1/3u
  3. Charm . . . . . Ch: +2/3 . . . m: 1/6u
  4. Strange . . . . Ch: -1/3 . . . . m: 50u
  5. Bottom . . . . .Ch: -1/3 . . . . m: 1/3u
  6. Top . . . . . . . Ch: +2/3 . . . . m: 75u


C. The Changing Atomic Model
Define "Atom"
  1. Democritus (400bc) "atomos"
  2. Aristotle (300bc) 4 elements
  3. Galileo (c. 1600) agreed with Democritus, which got him into trouble with the church because he did NOT agree with Aristotle.
  4. John Dalton (c. 1800) proposed a model much like Democritus but unimaginably small.
  5. Mendeleev (1868) presented his Periodic Table. There were about 60 known elements at the time. His table, organized by Atomic Mass, allowed for the prediction of several "new" elements.
  6. J.J. Thomson's (1904) model had negative electrons held inside a positive substance like raisins in pudding.
  7. Rutherford's (1911) model suggested that most of the mass of an atom ( and all of the positive charge) was at the center
  8. Henry Moseley (1913) introduced the modern Periodic Table, organized by Atomic Number
  9. Bohr's (1913) model had electrons in fixed orbits around the nucleus.
  10. Chadwick (a student of Bohr) concluded that there were Neutrons as well as Protons in the Nucleus
  11. The "Electron Cloud" model (1926) says that electrons do not follow fixed orbits but tend to occur more frequently in certain areas, based on the atomic number at the center.
D. Comparing Sub-atomic particles
A chart... (1, 1837 1836)
E. Many possible versions of atoms.
a large chart...


F. Periodic Table Terms
1. Period (row)-
2. Group (column)-
3. Metal-
4. Non-metals-
5. Semiconductor (metalloid)-
G. Regions of the PT you must also be able to identify
Alkali Metals
Alkaline-earth metals
Rare-earth metals
Transition Metals
Halogens
Noble (inert) gases
H. Coloring Bohr Models
Attach one to notes, to use as a model for doing more.


IV. Chemical Bonds

A. Vocabulary
  • Molecule -
  • Compound -
  • Formula -
  • Subscript (H2O)
  • Superscript (H1+O2-)
  • Oxidation Number -
  • Chemically Stable -
  • Polyatomic Ions -
B. Types of Chemical Bonds
  1. Ionic Bonds - 
  2. Covalent Bonds -
  3. Metallic Bonds -
C. Rules for Naming Compounds
  1. Positive then negative (left to right)
  2. A binary Compound ends with "-ide".
  3. Transition Metals may be followed by a Roman Numeral that tells about their positive Oxidation Number
  4. Prefixes are used for covalent compounds
D. Using the Bohr Model and Electron dots to help us write Chemical Formulas
To make Bohr Models of Compounds, you must figure out:
The number of Protons?
The number of Neutrons?
The number of Electrons?
How many electrons fit into each shell?
What type of bond is going to form?
What does it take for each atom to be stable?
If these atoms are still not happy, what will you add next?
Sodium Chloride


Aluminum Oxide


An Oxygen molecule


A Nitrogen molecule


Carbon Dioxide


Hydroxide


Water (could be called Hydrogen Hydroxide)


Magnesium Hydroxide



E. Balancing Chemical Formulas using Oxidation Numbers
  1. Write Symbols in order (positive then negative)
  2. Write Oxidation Numbers as Superscripts
  3. Use Oxidation Numbers to determine the ratio of atoms (or ions) in the compound. The ratios are written as subscripts. Reduce if necessary
  4. Check to be sure the compound is neutral
EisenhowerHS Chemistry has good videos to help


Lots of examples:

Random from P.T. and from the "Compound Card Game"

V. Chemical Reactions

A. Vocabulary
  1. Coefficient -
  2. Product -
  3. Reactant-
  4. Catalyst -
  5. Inhibitor -
  6. Diatomic -
  7. Precipitate-


B. The Law of Conservation of Mass...
States that the amount of mass before the chemical reaction equals the amount of mass after the chemical reaction
C. Balancing Chemical Equations
Rules:
  1. Write symbols for Elements, including "+" to separate the different substances, and "--->" to separate reactants from products.
  2. Put a subscript of "2" for Diatomic elements (H,N,O,F,Cl,Br,I) that are alone.
  3. Write Oxidation Numbers for all parts of compounds. Polyatomic Ions only need one oxidation number which should be placed outside of the parenthesis.
  4. Balance formulas by changing subscripts, to make them neutral... "Crossover and reduce".
  5. Change the Coefficients (from all 1's) to balance the equation... "How many atoms of ___ were there before the reaction took place? How many ___ after?"
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Examples:
Combustion (combining with Oxygen) of Magnesium to create Magnesium Oxide
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide to form water and Oxygen gas


- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Salt and vinegar produce Sodium Acetate and Hydrochloric acid
NaCl + CH3COOH ---> C2H3NaO2 + HCl
then
Copper Oxide reacts with acids to form water and copper salts.
CuO + CH3COOH --> 2H2O + Cu(C2H3O2)2
CuO + 2HCl --> H2O + CuCl2
then
Zinc in newer pennies reacts with the Hydrochloric acid to form Zinc Chloride and Hydrogen gas
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Alka-Seltzer ... dissolves when it's plopped into water and 2 of it's ingredients react fizzily with each other.
  H3C6H5O7(aq)+3NaHCO3(aq)→3CO2(g)+3H2O(l)+Na3C6H5O7(aq)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Potassium in water reacts to form Potassium Hydroxide and Hydrogen gas (plus a lot of heat energy)


Sodium in water reacts to form Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrogen gas (plus a lot of heat energy)



D. Classifying Chemical Reactions
  1. Synthesis-
  2. Decomposition-
  3. Single Replacement-
  4. Double Replacement-
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Combustion-
Endothermic-
Exothermic-




VI. Acids, Bases, and Salts

A. Vocabulary
1. Acid-


2. Base-


3. Indicator-


4. Neutralization Reaction-


5. Salt-


6. pH-


B. Properties of Acids and Bases ... compare/contrast
C. Strength vs. Concentration of Acids and Bases
D. pH scale and Using Indicators
E. Examples of Neutralization reactions


Physics

XI. Motion

A. Vocabulary
  1. Distance
  2. Displacement-
  3. Rate
  4. Speed
  5. Velocity-
  6. Acceleration-
B. Graphing Motion
C. Calculating Motion
  1. Slope
  2. Speed and Velocity
  3. Acceleration
D. Cool Equilibrium
  1. Freefall (microgravity)-
  2. Terminal Velocity-


XII. Newton's Laws

A. Vocabulary
  1. Inertia-
  2. Force-
  3. Net Force-
  4. Balanced Forces (equilibrium)-
  5. Unbalanced Forces-
B. Specific Forces
  1. Centripetal Force-
  2. Weight-
  3. Friction-
C. Newton's Laws of Motion
  1. (Inertia)
  2. (F=ma)
  3. (=&opp)
D. Calculating Force
Remember that weight is a force, so weight=m*acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/s2)
How does mass (inertia) affect motion?
E. Compare/contrast weight and mass
F. Labs for friction and circular motion


XIII. Momentum

A. Vocabulary
  1. Momentum-
  2. Impulse-
B. Simple examples
C. The Law of Conservation of Momentum
examples


XIV. Energy and Power

A. Vocabulary
  1. Work-
  2. Energy-
  3. Kinetic Energy-
  4. Potential Energy-
  5. Power-


B. Calculating Energy
C. The Law of Conservation of Energy
D. Power Calculations







Material that Iberia Parish CURRENTLY does not expect us to teach

II. Physical and Chemical Properties

A. Vocabulary
Matter-
Element-
Compound-
Heterogeneous Mixture-
Suspension-
Homogeneous Mixture-
Solution-
Alloy-


B. Classification of Matter
...Matter diagram

.

.

.


C. Properties
1. Physical Properties
a. Descriptions: Shape, size, color, texture, phase
b. Measurements: Density, volume, temperature, weight, mass
c. Behaviors: Magnetism, ductility, malleability, viscosity, conductivity
2. Chemical Properties
Taste, smell, ability to react, oxidation/rusting/tarnishing, flammability, photo-sensitivity,
D. Physical Changes vs Chemical Changes
Do we have a new substance (does the Identity Remain the Same)?
Can you UNDO the change?


Which category does "weathering" fit into?


III. Phases of Matter

A. Kinetic Theory of Matter ... ... (summarize in the form of a paragraph)
B. States (give examples of each state/phase of matter)
  1. Solid- (discuss amorphous solids)
  2. Liquid- (discuss non-Nutonian fluids)
  3. Gas-
  4. Plasma- (is this still just gas?)
C. Phase Changes (know the word for each change and give examples of each)
1. Solid to Liquid ->
2. Liquid to Solid ->
3. Liquid to Gas ->
a. Evaporation-
b. Boiling-
4. Gas to Liquid ->
5. Solid to Gas ->
6. Gas to Solid ->
D. Fluid Mechanics
  1. Thermal Expansion... specific examples
  2. Archimedes' Principle ... Things weigh less when submerged in a fluid, based on how much volume they displace.
  3. Surface Tension ... Bugs, dust, and pins can sit on the top of water. Pour a little too much into a glass and it may NOT overflow.
  4. Capillary Action ... Which tube draws the liquid higher? How do trees get water all the way up there?
  5. Pascal's Principle ... Pressure goes where?
  6. Bernoulli's Principle ... How does an airplane stay up there?
  7. Pressure Calculation ...
  8. Charles' and Boyle's Laws ...
  9. Pressure and Temperature affect many things:
a. Boiling and Melting Points ...
b. Vaporization rate ...
c. Dew Point ...
d. Weather in general ...
e. Tire Pressure ...
f. Ears Popping and labored breathing at high altitudes ...
g. Solubility ...
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