## I. Science Tools

A. Define
1. Science- the study of nature
2. Physics- the study of motion and energy
3. Chemistry- the study of the little things, that make up matter, how matter ends up with other matter
4. Physical Science- Physics + Chemistry
5. Equilibrium- balance
6. Ownership-
B. Scientific Methods – The Lies. The TRUTH!!!
1. Problem, usually stated as a question
2. Research
3. Hypothesis- an educated guess, that can be tested
4. Experiment
5. Theory- an explanation that has been tested, that may or may not agree with your hypothesis
- - - - - - - - - - -
Law- agreed upon that it is true in more than one experiment by many
C. Experimental Design
Constant- something in the experiment that doesn't change
Variable- something that changes
Independent variable- the variable that you control; use it to affect something else in the experiment that will help you find an answer; decide when it changes and how; always put on the horizontal axis when graphing (x)
Dependent variable- a variable that is affected when you change the independent variable; depends on the independent variable vertical axis when graphing (y)
Control Group- used to compare {eliminate bias}
Placebo- fake group (based on mental feeling) {eliminate bias}
Double-blind study- someone from outside of the experiment does the experiment {eliminate bias}
Bias- use your opinion to affect the project/experiment
D. Units- a noun that follows a number to explain a measurement (Learn "The Chart"!!!!!)
meter --> distance
m^2 -->Area
Liter = dm^3 -->Volume
gram = mass of 1mL of water
second --> time
Define: Length, Area, Volume, mass
Compare/contrast mass and volume
List comparing English and SI units...
E. Affixes
(see "The Chart")
F. Measuring
1. Issues to consider before you start measuring
Concept:
Units:
Scale... ... ...
Largest amount that can be measured:
Increment:
Precision:
2. Issues you MAY need to consider while measuring
Parallax
Meniscus
“Burning an inch”
Estimating
3. Measuring Mindset
a. Measure and record the "at least"
b. Estimate 1 more digit
c. Record correct units
G. Conversions
H. Graphing
1. Label each axis with a concept and units. Time is usually on the horizontal axis.
2. Write a title above that is descriptive yet not redundant.
3. Pick scales that will allow you to use as much of the graph paper as possible.
4. After plotting points, connect them smoothly, freehand.
5. ... slope ...

## II. Physical and Chemical Properties

A. Vocabulary
Matter-
Element-
Compound-
Heterogeneous Mixture-
Suspension-
Homogeneous Mixture-
Solution-
Alloy-

B. Classification of Matter
...Matter diagram

.

.

.

C. Properties
1. Physical Properties
a. Descriptions: Shape, size, color, texture, phase
b. Measurements: Density, volume, temperature, weight, mass
c. Behaviors: Magnetism, ductility, malleability, viscosity, conductivity
2. Chemical Properties
Taste, smell, ability to react, oxidation/rusting/tarnishing, flammability, photo-sensitivity,
D. Physical Changes vs Chemical Changes
Do we have a new substance (does the Identity Remain the Same)?
Can you UNDO the change?

Which category does "weathering" fit into?

## III. Phases of Matter

A. Kinetic Theory of Matter ... ... (summarize in the form of a paragraph)
B. States (give examples of each state/phase of matter)
1. Solid- (discuss amorphous solids)
2. Liquid- (discuss non-Nutonian fluids)
3. Gas-
4. Plasma- (is this still just gas?)
C. Phase Changes (know the word for each change and give examples of each)
1. Solid to Liquid ->
2. Liquid to Solid ->
3. Liquid to Gas ->
a. Evaporation-
b. Boiling-
4. Gas to Liquid ->
5. Solid to Gas ->
6. Gas to Solid ->
D. Fluid Mechanics
1. Thermal Expansion... specific examples
2. Archimedes' Principle ... Things weigh less when submerged in a fluid, based on how much volume they displace.
3. Surface Tension ... Bugs, dust, and pins can sit on the top of water. Pour a little too much into a glass and it may NOT overflow.
4. Capillary Action ... Which tube draws the liquid higher? How do trees get water all the way up there?
5. Pascal's Principle ... Pressure goes where?
6. Bernoulli's Principle ... How does an airplane stay up there?
7. Pressure Calculation ...
8. Charles' and Boyle's Laws ...
9. Pressure and Temperature affect many things:
a. Boiling and Melting Points ...
b. Vaporization rate ...
c. Dew Point ...
d. Weather in general ...
e. Tire Pressure ...
f. Ears Popping and labored breathing at high altitudes ...
g. Solubility ...

## IV. and V. Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table

A. Terms
Atomic Number-
Mass Number-
Isotope-
Atomic Mass-
Ion-
Charge - A property used to explain the attraction and repulsion between certain objects. Two types of charge are possible: negative and positive. Objects with different charge attract; objects with the same charge repel each other.
Valence Electron-
Mole

...

B. Even smaller than atoms - Quarks (types and what they make) can be described in several ways ... charge, spin, mass (compared to a Proton)
1. Up . . . . . . . . Ch: +2/3 . . . m: 1/3u
2. Down . . . . . . Ch: -1/3 . . . m: 1/3u
3. Charm . . . . . Ch: +2/3 . . . m: 1/6u
4. Strange . . . . Ch: -1/3 . . . . m: 50u
5. Bottom . . . . .Ch: -1/3 . . . . m: 1/3u
6. Top . . . . . . . Ch: +2/3 . . . . m: 75u

C. The Changing Atomic Model
Define "Atom"
1. Democritus (400bc) "atomos"
2. Aristotle (300bc) 4 elements
3. Galileo (1600s) agreed with Democritus, which got him into trouble with the church because he did NOT agree with Aristotle.
4. John Dalton (1800s) proposed a model much like Democritus but unimaginably small.
5. Mendeleev (1868) presented his Periodic Table. There were about 60 known elements at the time. His table, organized by Atomic Mass, allowed for the prediction of several "new" elements.
6. J.J. Thomson's (1904) model had negative electrons held inside a positive substance like raisins in pudding.
7. Rutherford's (1911) model suggested that most of the mass of an atom ( and all of the positive charge) was at the center
8. Henry Moseley (1913) introduced the modern Periodic Table, organized by Atomic Number
9. Bohr's (1913) model had electrons in fixed orbits around the nucleus.
10. Chadwick (a student of Bohr) concluded that there were Neutrons as well as Protons in the Nucleus
11. The "Electron Cloud" model (1926) says that electrons do not follow fixed orbits but tend to occur more frequently in certain areas, based on the atomic number at the center.
D. Comparing Sub-atomic particles
 Copy the Chart from page 119? but leave the Mass column blank  (1, 1837 1836)

E. Many possible versions of atoms. Using a large chart...

F. Periodic Table Terms
1. Period (row)-
2. Group (column)-
3. Metal-
4. Non-metals-
5. Semiconductor (metalloid)-
G. Regions of the PT you must also be able to identify
Alkali Metals
Alkaline-earth metals
Rare-earth metals
Transition Metals
Halogens
Noble (inert) gases

## VI. Chemical Bonds

A. Types of Chemical Bonds
1. Ionic Bonds-  when one atom gives one or more electrons to another atom.(non-metal and metal)
2. Covalent Bonds- when a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms.(non-metals)
3. Metallic Bonds- occurs between large groups of metal atoms.
B. Vocabulary
• Subscript (H2O)
• Superscript (H1+O2-)
• Oxidation Number - a superscript assigned to an element in chemical combination that represents the number of electrons lost (or gained, if the number is negative) by an atom of that element in the compound.
• Chemically Stable - Atoms become stable by exchanging or sharing electrons. Once this is done, they take up less space and have less energy. So, stable also means relaxed.
• Polyatomic Ions-- a charged particle that contains 2 or more atoms.
C. Rules for Naming Compounds
1. Positive then negative (left to right)
2. A binary Compound ends with "-ide".
3. Metals may be followed by a Roman Numeral that tells about their positive Oxidation Number
4. Prefixes are used for covalent compounds
D. Using the Bohr Model and Electron dots
To make Bohr Models of Compounds, you must figure out:
The number of Protons?
The number of Neutrons?
The number of Electrons?
How many electrons fit into each shell?
What type of bond is going to form?
What does it take for each atom to be stable?
If these atoms are still not happy, what will you add next?
Sodium Chloride

Aluminum Oxide

An Oxygen molecule

A Nitrogen molecule

Carbon Dioxide

Hydroxide

Water (could be called Hydrogen Hydroxide)

Magnesium Hydroxide

E. Balancing Chemical Formulas using Oxidation Numbers
1. Write Symbols in order (positive then negative)
2. Write Oxidation Numbers as Superscripts
3. Use Oxidation Numbers to determine the ratio of atoms (ions) in the compound, reduce if necessary
4. Check to be sure the compound is neutral

## VII. Chemical Reactions

A. Vocabulary
1. Oxidation Number-

2. Subscript-

3. Coefficient - the number that goes in front of a compound, used as a multiplier

4. Product - end result of a chemical reaction, final outcome, produced by a chemical reaction (Always on the right side of a chemical equation)
5. Reactant- stuff that exists before a chemical reaction takes place (Always on the left side of a chemical equation)

6. Catalyst - a thing that starts or speeds up a chemical reaction (accelerator)

7. Inhibitor - slows down or stops a chemical reaction (brake)

8. Precipitate- solid substance that forms in some reactions and settles to the bottom

B. The Law of Conservation of Mass...
States that the amount of mass before the chemical reaction equals the amount of mass after the chemical reaction
C. Balancing Chemical Equations
Rules:
1. Write symbols for Elements, including "+" to separate the different substances, and "--->" to separate reactants from products.
2. Put a subscript of "2" for Diatomic elements (H,N,O,F,Cl,Br,I) that are alone.
3. Write Oxidation Numbers for all parts of compounds. Polyatomic Ions only need one oxidation number which should be placed outside of the parenthesis.
4. Balance formulas by changing subscripts, to make them neutral... "Crossover and reduce".
5. Change the Coefficients (from all 1's) to balance the equation... "How many atoms of ___ were there before the reaction took place? How many ___ after?"
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Examples:
D. Classifying Chemical Reactions
1. Synthesis-
2. Decomposition-
3. Single Replacement-
4. Double Replacement-
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Combustion-
Endothermic-
Exothermic-

## X. Nuclear Reactions

A. Vocabulary
1. Geiger Counter-

2. Bubble Chamber and Cloud Chamber-

4. Half-life-

Alpha particles-
Beta particles-
Gamma rays-
Nuclear decay generally involves some combination of those 3 types of radiation. If an alpha particle is given off, the atom transmutes into a new element with an atomic number two (2) less than it's original number. If a beta particle is given off, it will have a new atomic number that is one (1) higher.
See the Graph we made in class. It can be used to predict how old a thing is based on how much C-14 is left in the sample. Every 6000 years (5730 actually), half of what was left will decay. If a thing is older than about 50000 years old, Uranium (or some other radioactive isotope) must be looked at instead.
D. Nuclear Reactions
1. Nuclear Fission-
Like when the Principal puts more teachers on duty, technicians at Nuclear Power Plants add more control rods to the reaction chamber to slow down the chain reaction, or remove them to allow the reaction to increase. Critical mass must be maintained.
2. Nuclear Fusion-
Most Fusion reactions give off more energy than was put into them. Therefore, once the reaction begins, there's almost no way to control it. This is true if we use any fuel below (with a lower atomic number than) Iron. If we try to fuse Iron (or anything larger) with other atoms, there is some energy released, but not as much as was required to create the reaction in the first place. Fusion of Iron and heavier elements can only happen in special places and at special times...
3. Nuclear Reactions in Medicine
Not only are tracers (ex. Thallium, Barium, and Iodine) important in diagnosing things like cancer and heart problems, but Radiation can be used to treat cancer (ex. Radium and Cesium).  Although commonly used to treat skin cancer directly, it can be used in the form of a small pill implanted next to an inoperable tumor, to try to kill it or at least shrink it.

## IX. Acids, Bases, and Salts

A. Vocabulary
1. Acid-

2. Base-

3. Indicator-

4. Neutralization Reaction-

5. Salt-

6. pH-

7. Buffer-

8. Titration-
B. Properties of Acids and Bases ... compare/contrast
C. Strength vs. Concentration of Acids and Bases
D. pH scale and Using Indicators

# Physics

## I. Motion

A. Vocabulary
1. Distance
2. Displacement-
3. Rate
4. Speed
5. Velocity-
6. Acceleration-
B. Graphing Motion
C. Calculating Motion
1. Slope
2. Speed and Velocity
3. Acceleration
D. Cool Equilibrium
1. Freefall (microgravity)-
2. Terminal Velocity-

## II. Newton's Laws

A. Vocabulary
1. Inertia-
2. Force-
3. Net Force-
4. Balanced Forces (equilibrium)-
5. Unbalanced Forces-
B. Specific Forces
1. Centripetal Force-
2. Weight-
3. Friction-
C. Newton's Laws of Motion
1. (Inertia)
2. (F=ma)
3. (=&opp)
D. Calculating Force
Remember that weight is a force, so weight=m*acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/s2)
How does mass (inertia) affect motion?
E. Compare/contrast weight and mass

## III. Momentum

A. Vocabulary
1. Momentum-
2. Impulse-
B. Simple examples
C. The Law of Conservation of Momentum
examples

## IV. Energy and Power

A. Vocabulary
1. Work-
2. Energy-
3. Kinetic Energy-
4. Potential Energy-
5. Power-

B. Calculating Energy
C. The Law of Conservation of Energy
D. Power Calculations