Overview Check this out... NASA History site

Leesonma 00:27, 15 September 2007 (UTC)
Have you ever wondered what can be seen beyond the naked eye? Scientists and other mechanics work together to build significant and intellegent space telescopes. Each space telescope has a different set mission. These great telescopes are the ATM (Apollo Telescope Mount), HST (Hubble Space Telescope), and the Spitzer space telescope. With these special designed telescopes, a human can see and discover things in space like never before.

I hope you mention one particular group of telescopes... NASA's "Great Observatories". You've already got 2 of them on your list. Also don't forget the first good one... the ATM! (no, that's not a joke)

Leesonma 02:54, 14 September 2007 (UTC)

I Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM)

A. Overview

  1. ATM or the Apollo Telescope Mount, is the name given to a solar observatory. Apollo was attached to the first U.S. space station, Skylab, in May of 1973. To operate Apollo, astronauts had to manually control it's components from within Skylab. This telescope was the biggest and most powerful solar observing telescope at the time. It was the first to find sun spots with a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum of visible light through x-rays. A big accomplishment for this telescope was gaining increased understanding of dynamic characteristics of hot regions on the solar surface and also the behavior of the newly discovered coronal holes. After three missions of exploration, the ATM crashed down with the Skylab in July 11, 1979.

    The Apollo Telescope Mount completed.

II. Hubble Space Telescope (HST)

A. Overview

  1. Another fascinating space telescope is the HST. The Hubble Space Telescope orbits around the earth. In 1990, Hubble was launched in space to play a big part in the field of astronomy. Hubble carried five great instruments but two instruments failed to operate. Both of the instruments were valuable cameras. Even with these fatal failures, Hubble still managed to make discoveries. Two critical discoveries were dark energy and the comet collision with Jupiter. Scientists believe that dark energy is a force that is changing our universe and is believed to be forcing our galaxies farther and farther apart.In 1994, Hubble captured images when the comet Shoemaker-Levey 9 collided with Jupiter.

    The recent image of the Hubble Space Telescope.

B. Discoveries

The Hubble Telescope has so far made ground-breaking discoveries in astronomy. One of these discoveries includes the measuring the distance between the “Cepheid variable” stars more accurately than ever before and thus a better rate of universe expansion. The telescope was also able to capture images of the collision between Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter in 1994. Others discovered by the Hubble would be the proto-planetary disks in the Orion Nebula, which suggests the presence of extra-solar planets around sun-like stars. This telescope has been able to take such images and reveal galaxies that are billions of light years away.

Over the recent years of the twenty first century the Hubble is still making more and more discoveries. Here are some discoveries:

  • On February 22, 2006, the Hubble confirms that Pluto has two new moons.
  • On February 28, 2006, the Hubble has taken a snapshot of the largest and detailed spiral galaxy.
  • On April 15, 2007, the Hubble finds a ring of dark matter.

Ring of dark matter

  • On January 1, 2008, the Hubble finds glowing rings within space.
  • On January 15, 2009, the Hubble locates a Nebula in a cluster.

Nebula within a cluster.

  • On April 14, 2009, the Hubble catches a black hole flaring up.

Black hole flare-up

  • On May 5, 2010, the Hubble catches an image of the planet, WASP-12b being eaten by another star.

III. Spitzer Space Telescope

A. Overview

  1. August 25, 2003 marks the day the Spitzer Space Telescope was first launched into space. This major telescope is the largest infrared telescope ever launched to obtain images and spectra. Many changes have been made to Spitzer on its journey. Such as its orbit components, it has the ability to make its own choice of orbit. It became more lightweight, and cryogenic optics. With these innovations Spitzer, made many discoveries. Such as atomosperes on the planets outside of our solar system. Also it helped find planets in the making in 2005.

The Spitzer Space Telescope.

B. Discoveries

  • In October of 2009, the most valued discovery made by the Spitzer Space Telescope was discovering Saturn's largest ring.

Ring discovered by Spitzer

IV. James Webb Telescope

A. Overview

  1. A large, infrared-optimized space telescope, scheduled for launch in 2018.
  2. Will find first galaxies that formed in the early universe, connecting the big bang to our own Milky Way galaxy
  3. Will have longer wavelength coverage and greatly improved sensitivity.

B. Facts

  1. Wavelength coverage: 0.6-28 microns
  2. Orbit: 1.5 million km for earth at L2 point
  3. Will be launched from Arianespac's ELA-3 launch complex at European Spaceport located near Kourou, French Guiana.

C. Uses of the JWT

  1. Search for the first galaxies or luminous objects formed after the big bang.
  2. Determine how galaxies evolved from their formation until now.
  3. Observe the formation of stars from the first stages to the formation of planetary systems
  4. Measure the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems and investigate the potential for life in those. systems.

D. Launch segment’s primary components:

  1. Launch vehicle
  2. Payload adapter
  3. Launch campaign preparation and launch campaign

V. Herschel space telescope

A. Overview

  1. The Herschel Space Observatory (originally called FIRST - Far-Infrared and Sub-millimetre Telescope)
  2. An infrared telescope which is intended to discover how stars and galaxies were born.
  3. Herschel is the largest and most advanced infrared telescope ever built and will observe wavelengths never covered before.

B. Instruments

  1. Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), a camera and a low- to medium-resolution spectrometer for wavelengths up to about 205 micrometres.
  2. Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE), a camera and a low- to medium-resolution spectrometer for wavelengths longer than 200 micrometres.
  3. Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI), a highly accurate spectrometer that can be used to obtain information.
  4. It will carry the infrared telescope.

C. Facts

  1. Tall 'tube' 7.5 metres high and 4 metres wide.
  2. A launch mass of around 3.3 tonnes.
  3. The bulk of the spacecraft consists of a liquid helium thermos bottle inside which the instrument detectors sit and are cooled down to only a few degrees above absolute zero.

D. Discoveries

  • The Herschel discovers the thread of a star formation.

Star formation

VI. Chandra

A. Overview

  1. NASAs newest space telescope that launched in July 23, 1999.
  2. Will allow scientists from around the world to obtain unprecedented X-ray images and spectra of violent, high-temperature events.
  3. To help us better understand the structure and evolution of our universe.
  4. Serve as a unique tool to study detailed physics in a unique laboratory -- the universe itself one that cannot be replicated here on Earth.
  5. Managed by NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.
  6. Chandra is a sophisticated, state-of-the-art instrument that represents a tremendous technological advance in X-ray astronomy.

B. Did you know

  1. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is the worlds most powerful X-ray telescope. It has eight-times greater resolution and will be able to detect sources more than 20-times fainter than any previous X-ray telescope.
  2. With its Inertial Upper Stage and support equipment, is the largest and heaviest payload ever launched by the Space Shuttle.
  3. Resolving power is 0.5 arc-seconds -- equal to the ability to read the letters of a stop sign at a distance of 12 miles.
  4. Will observe X-rays from clouds of gas so vast that it takes light more than five-million years to go from one side to the other.
  5. The Chandra X-ray Observatory will be able to study particles up to the last millisecond before they are sucked inside a black hole.

C. Instruments

  1. Charged Coupled Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS)
  2. High Resolution Camera (HRC)
  3. High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG)
  4. Low Energy Transmission Grating (LETG)

D. Facts

  1. Total Chandra/IUS/Support equipment at liftoff: 50,162 lbs
  2. Length:Total IUS/Chandra: 57.0

    Crab nebula taken by Chandra

  3. Launched in july 23 1999
  4. Using the Chandra's x-rays helps to discover things that cannot be seen with the human eye.

VII. Kepler Space Telescope

A. Overview

  1. Named after Johannes Kepler; launched on March 7, 2009
  2. Created in order to search the Milky Way for planets that have a similar design as Earth
  3. Uses a photometer (measures light) to observe thousands of stars
  4. Collects data from the stars to detect planets outside the solar system

    The Kepler telescope

B. Spacecraft

  1. Has a mass of 1,039 kilograms
  2. Has a 0.95-meter aperture (a place or hole that light passes through)
  3. Lasts for 13 hours while going across the center of the star
  4. When launched, the Kepler had the largest primary mirror (1.4-meter) orbiting outside Earth's orbit

C. Discoveries

  • On January 4, 2010, found unknown dense planets and two low mass white dwarfs
  • On February 2, 2011, it was announced that the Kepler found 1,235 planetary candidates that circled around 997 host stars

Vlll. Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope

A. Overview

  1. A planned X-ray space observatory from china
  2. Planned to be launched in 2016
  3. Will be China's first astronomy satellite

B. Satellite Facts

  1. Weight is approximately 3000 kg
  2. The orbit is 550km, 43 degrees
  3. Has a 3-Axis stabilized precision
  4. Estimates lifetime of 4 years

lX. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite

A. Overview

  1. A planned space observatory designed to search for exoplanets using transit methods
  2. Mission duration should last up to two years and the launch date is set to be august 2017
  3. Will use an array of wide fields cameras to perform an all-sky survey
  4. Has full-framed pictures with an effective exposure time of two hours

B. Satellite Facts

  1. Launch mass is 350kg(750 lb) and has 400 watts of power
  2. its orbital semi major axis is 240,000 km (150,000mi)
  3. its orbit would take aproximately 13.7 days


What To Do About This Project:

  • Add more information on telescopes and other telescopes
  • Update the current information provided
  • Edit Hubble, Spitzer, and Apollo. NEEDS MORE INFORMATION!
  • Change format
  • Everything is not in order, fix that!