Venus is an inferior planet in the Solar System, orbiting the Sun at 67 million miles or 72% of Earth's orbit. With its thick toxic atmosphere, it traps heat making it the hottest planet in the Milky Way.
Terrestrial plan et h i g h
Terrestrial planets share a number of common features. They are all composed mostly of rock and heavy metals with a core made mostly of iron. Terrestrial planets are much smaller than gas giants and have varied terrain such as volcanoes, canyons, mountains, and craters. Also, they do not have planetary rings like the gas planets do. Another common feature among the terrestrial planets is that they have few or no moons.
Why do Terrestrial planets have fewer moons than outer planets?
The more mass a planet has, the larger its gravitational field (and the farther away it can control objects such as moons). The outer planets are all much more massive than the Earth, which is the largest of the terrestrial planets, and so their gravitational fields are stronger and larger than Earth's - they can control a larger region of space and therefore keep more moons in orbit.
- Mercury 0 moons
- Venus 0 moons
- Earth 1 moon
- Mars 2 moons
- Jupiter 63 moons
- Saturn 60 moons
- Uranus 27 moons
- Neptune 13 moons
Day and year
Venus is the only planet we know that has a day longer than its year. It is retrograde and 243 times longer then Earth's day. It takes the planet longer to turn on its axis than it takes it to orbit the Sun. Venus is the only planet in our Solar System to turn clockwise. With its extremely slow axis rotations, some suggest that something might have once collided with it to disrupt its regular rotation.
It is safe to say that almost everyone knows that Venus is the second planet from the Sun, located between Mercury and Earth. Another well-known fact is that it is the sixth largest planet. It is the brightest object in the sky after the Sun and the Moon and can, in the right conditions, be seen during the day. At night, because it is so bright, it is also able to cast shadows. What people may not know is where the name came from. The Romans named Venus after the goddess of love and beauty. The Greeks called it Aphrodite and the Babylonians called it Ishtar for the same reason. This goddess of love is also known for having the most circular orbit of all of the planets and is located at about 108,200,000 km (0.72 AU)from the Sun. This close proximity to the Sun brings about the highly interesting characteristics of Venus. The thick clouds in Venus' atmosphere allow heat to not escape, meaning that Venus' temperature can be up to 480 degrees Celcius; Being the hottest planet in the Solar System, even hotter than Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun.
Venus' atmosphere is excrutiatingly hot and heavy. It is composed predominantly of carbon dioxide, approximately 96.5% followed by nitrogen at somewhere around 3.4%. Clouds of sulfuric acid also cover the planet. Since all of the water on Venus has been evaporated, the atmoshphere is extremely heavy. On Earth, the water of the oceans removes most of the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but since there is no water on Venus, the carbon dioxide thickens. This causes the pressure of the planet to reach 90 atm, which is about the same as approximately 1 km in the Earth's ocean. This pressure and carbon dioxide traps heat released by the planet istself, along with the small amount of energy from the sun that makes it to the surface, causing a greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect has made the surface and lower atmosphere of Venus one of the hottest places in the solar system.
The surface of Venus is also intriguing because it is very young at only 300 million to 500 million years. It has been shaped by the flowing and hardening of lava from volcanoes (There are more volcanoes on Venus than on any other planet in our Solar System, although it is not yet known whether any of these volcanoes are still active), impacts from space debris, and deformation of the crust. A soil analysis taken from Venus shows that it is similar to that of Earth. The temperature at the surface is, on average, about 460 degrees Celsius or 745 degrees Kelvin. This is due to the trapping of heat in the atmosphere. The surface is smoother than the surface of Earth. This is more than likely because of the lava flow. In total, Venus's surface is covered by 70% rolling hills, 20% lowland plains, and 10% highlands, showing its relative smoothness. It is believed that there was once water on the surface of Venus but, because of its proximity to the Sun, it evaporated. Venus also has two continent-like plateaus that make up 8 % of the surface. The first, the northern Ishtar Terra, is a lava-filled basin that is bigger than the continental United States and it has Venus' highest mountains, the Maxwell Montes. The southern plateau is called Aphrodite Terra and is larger at about the size of Africa. These continents, however do not show any evidence of drift as on the Earth.
At its core, Venus is also believed to be very much like Earth in that it is made of iron and surrounded by a molten rock mantle. This core, along with the rest of the planet, rotates in retrograde, or in the opposite direction of Earth and most of the other planets. This means that the sun rises in the west and sets in the east on the Venusian surface. The cause for this is unknown, but it is believed that perhaps a catastrophic collision occurred between Venus and a large chunk of space debris causing it to spin in the opposite direction. Another theory is that most of the boulders that grouped together to form Venus were spinning in an opposite direction to the rest. A Venusian day is approximately 243.019 Earth days in contrast with its revolving around the sun in approximately 224.701 Earth days. This means that its day is longer than its year. One would think that the differences in temperature between day and night would be extreme but that is false.
The slow rotation of Venus also suggests that weather on the planet would be calm but this also is false. Although there is no water on the surface, water vapor is present in the clouds of Venus and this causes rain. This rain, however, is not like that on Earth because sulfuric acid rains down in contrast to water as on Earth. The acid evaporates, however, before it reaches the surface because of the excrutiating heat. In addition, clouds on the equator at 50-60 km above the surface can move at up to 350 km/hr, strongly contrasting the idea of idle weather. There is also evidence of great stormy clouds at an altitude of about 30km. The clouds of Venus have also been found to produce lightning, much like that of Earth but at half the rate. Seth lb42 02:06, 23 October 2008 (UTC)
Various explorations to the surface of Venus and around Venus have contributed the knowledge that is available today. Perhaps the most important exploration missions sent to Venus were Mariner 2 (1962), Venera 4 (1967), Venera 7 (1969), Probe Venera 14 (1982), Magellan (1989), and Venus Express which is currently in orbit. The significance of the American Mariner 2 is that it was the first spacecraft that flew by Venus. Next, Venera 4, part of the Soviet Union's Venera series, became the first probe to send data back from Venus's atmosphere. Vemera 7 became the first spacecraft to land on the surface of another planet and successfully send back information, it landed on Venus in 1969. Venera 14 landed on Venus in 1982 and collected soil from the surface and analyzed it along with taking pictures of the surface. In 1990, the Magellan probe of the U.S. was sent to use radar to create a detailed map of Venus' surface. It mapped 98% of the surface and then plunged into the atmosphere, burning up as was planned. The most recent data has been collected by the Venus Express, sent in 2006, that is still in orbit today. It was sent to study the atmosphere and surface characteristics of Venus and it has already found that on the south pole of Venus there is a large double atmospheric vortex. A polar vortex is a persistent, large-scale cyclone located near the poles of a planet. Venus has two of these at its southern pole. Seth lb42 00:13, 24 October 2008 (UTC)
Compared to Earth
It is often called Earth's "sister planet," due to the fact that it looks cool in the night sky. However, if you actually send a lump of metal over there to check it out one will find that this is not so. Is it possible for planets to be related? Of course there can be no blood or hertical relation, but a physical relation in size and density among other things can be found between heavenly bodies in the solar system. When looking for a possible relation between planets, it would make sense to look at planets that are within a close proxitmity to each other. The two planets, Earth and Venus, are perhaps the most closely related planets in the solar system when it comes to a few characteristics. Venus does, however, differ from the Earth in many ways, setting it apart from Earth and all of the other planets.
The close connection between Earth and Venus exists predominantly in size, mass, and a few other areas. The first area, size, is eerily similar to Earth's diameter at 12,756.6 km and Venus' diameter at 12,103.6 km. The similarities continue with mass, Earth at 5.972 x 1024kg and Venus at 4.869 x 1024kg, and density, Earth at 5.52kgm-3 and Venus at 5.24kgm-3. The Earth and Venus are also alike in the areas of escape velocity and surface gravity. The escape velocity of Earth is 11.18kms-1 and that of Venus is 10.36kms-1. Continuing with surface gravity, Earth's is 9.81m/s2 while Venus' is 8.87m/s2. One other area in which the two planets are alike is their eccentricity of orbit. Earth's eccenticity is 0.017 and Venus' is 0.007. All of these like statistics strongly suggest the fact that the two planets originated at around the same time. So, are they related?
The pressure of the atmosphere of Venus is 92 times that of Earth. If you were able to stand on the surface of Venus, it would feel like being 1 kilometer under the sea on Earth, a depth deep enough to sink a submarine. A person or creature would immediately be crushed by Venus' amazingly strong pressure. Because of this, most lumps of metal we send over get crushed into tiny pieces when still 20 km above the surface.
It is made of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and some other junk.
Due to intense pressure, few of the lumps of metal we send over can ever really reach the surface of Venus. There the rocks glow with heat hotter than the days on planet Mercury. (462 C VS. 420 C) There is little light however, as the atmosphere does not allow much sunlight to reach the surface.
80% of the surface of Venus is just volcanic plains.There are 2 highland "continents" making up the rest of the surface.
The Earth could become like Venus
Over time the sun is getting gradually hotter and scientists believe that 500 million years from now or 1,000 to 2,000 million years from now the Earth will become too hot for liquid water, the oceans will boil away and life here will become impossible.  Will it really happen? We don't know, we can't guess what a superior technology with vast resources will be able to do to protect the planet or to escape to other planets, other star systems, see . If survival depends on shielding the planet of excaping vast resources will be available, our descendents will do without other things to research how to stay alive and to build whatever machines they need to stay alive.
COMPARISON TO EARTH:
Diameter: Earth- 12,756.6 km Venus- 12,103.6 km Mass: Earth- 5.972 x 1024kg Venus- 4.869 x 1024kg Density: Earth- 5.52kg/m-3 Venus- 5.24kg/m-3 Escape Velocity: Earth- 11.18km/s-1 Venus- 10.36km/s-1 Surface Gravity: Earth- 9.81m/s2 Venus- 8.87m/s2 Ecentricity of: Earth- 0.017 Venus- 0.007 Orbit
- The Nine Planets - Venus Videao teaching about Venus
- Photos of the surface of Venus the Planet Video teaching about Venus
Venus. [] . Accessed: September 29, 2008
"Terrestrial Planets." Universe Today RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 May 2014. <http://www.universetoday.com/50287/terrestrial-planets/#1xzz301s4Uh4c>. "Welcome to Venus." - Bob the Alien's Tour of the Solar System. N.p., n.d. Web 4 May 2014. <http://www.bobthealien.co.uk/venus.htm>. The Solar Space Station. Planet Venus. [] .Accessed: September 29, 2008 Views of the Solar System. Venus Introduction. []. Accessed: September 29, 2008 The Internet Encyclopedia of Science. Venus[] . Accessed: September 29, 2008 ESA Science and Technology. Venus and Earth Compared. [] . Accessed: September 29, 2008
Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Observations and Explorations of Venus. [] . Accessed: October 23, 2008 Southwestern's volume library volume 1, Chapter 5, pg 16 Lanisr08 05:21, 16 September 2007 (UTC)
A small part of this is copied from Venus